1. Teams face paradoxes & dilemmas
    1. Efficiency & Innovation
    2. Stability & change
  2. Building on Paradox
    1. Knowledge work involves 2 things
      1. Exploitation: solving problems by exploiting current knowledge
      2. Exploration: finding new problems to solve; exploring new knowledge
    2. You need to explicitly manage those 2 aspects
  3. Concrete problems
    1. Uneven flow
      1. Start-stop progress
      2. Priority changes
      3. Most of the "turbulence" that is later overburdens the outbound flow is caused by the inbound flow
      4. You need to manage the end-to-end flow to solve the problem
        1. Downstream: it's about limiting wip, managing bottlenecs
        2. Upstream: it's about generating sufficient options
    2. Contradiction: commitments with uncertainty
      1. early commitments are often done with false assumptions, generating rework for a team that's already overburdened
      2. The solution to the "false assumptions" problem is validated learning based on hypothesis
        1. PDCA
      3. But the hypothesis need to be based on something: you need observations
        1. OODA
    3. Fixed Mindset
      1. Are we making observations (only) based on what we know? or are we really innovating?
      2. Invisible gorillas
        1. Part of this is natural: the more a team works together, the more the variety of options considered narrows down
      3. Ugly ducklings: solutions looking for a problem
      4. Path creation is the solution
        1. Exploring ideas that we don't completely understand, but that it has potential for something new
        2. Nurturing the "ugly ducklings" helps developing a Growth Mindset
  4. Complete Discovery Kanban